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that regularly use neat ethanol fuel (known as E100).Bioethanol is a form of renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feedstocks.The first type uses enzymes and yeast fermentation to convert the plant cellulose into ethanol while the second type uses pyrolysis to convert the whole plant to either a liquid bio-oil or a syngas.Second generation processes can also be used with plants such as grasses, wood or agricultural waste material such as straw.This process, known as distillation, separates the ethanol, but its purity is limited to 95–96% due to the formation of a low-boiling water-ethanol azeotrope with maximum (95.6% m/m (96.5% v/v) ethanol and 4.4% m/m (3.5% v/v) water).This mixture is called hydrous ethanol and can be used as a fuel alone, but unlike anhydrous ethanol, hydrous ethanol is not miscible in all ratios with gasoline, so the water fraction is typically removed in further treatment to burn in combination with gasoline in gasoline engines.
Ethanol is commonly made from biomass such as corn or sugarcane.Bio-ethanol is usually obtained from the conversion of carbon-based feedstock.Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun using photosynthesis, provided that all minerals required for growth (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) are returned to the land.Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugar beet, sorghum, grain, switchgrass, barley, hemp, kenaf, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruit, molasses, corn, stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton, other biomass, as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvesting, whichever has the best well-to-wheel assessment.
An alternative process to produce bio-ethanol from algae is being developed by the company Algenol. gallons per acre (5,000 imperial gallons per acre; 56,000 liters per hectare) per year compared with 400 US gallons per acre (330 imp gal/acre; 3,700 L/ha) for corn production.
Ethanol is subsequently isolated and purified by a combination of adsorption and distillation.